The Dachau concentration camp opened in March 1933 to house political prisoners. Similar camps were established throughout Germany soon thereafter, with ordinary criminals brought in to act as functionaries. Following the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Jews were also incarcerated in these camps, as were political prisoners from the occupied territories after 1938. A system of color-coded badges was used to identify who was who.